Research & Resources

The following articles represent just a fraction of the data and information on Cera. Through peer-reviewed studies, clinical trials, and fieldwork,  Cera's rice-based ORS and electrolyte mixes are proven to rehydrate more efficiently than sugar-based ORS or beverages.   

In addition to the clinical studies listed below, our formulas are certified by the renowned Monash University in Australia. FODMAPs are a group of dietary sugars that are indigestible or poorly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. A low FODMAP diet does not treat a disease but may help meet nutritional needs with reduced gastrointestinal symptoms.  

Cera Products is there to control symptoms and help restore electrolytes. For access to articles or questions, please contact us!


The Effectiveness of CeraSport and CeraLyte in Physical Recovery from Heat and General Exhaustion

  1. Glycemic and Lactate Responses of Oral Hydration Solutions in Healthy Adults at Rest and Moderate Exercise. Kuecher AM, Smaldino RJ, O'Hara RB, Linderman JK. JEPonline June 2017;20(3):66-78.

This study summarizes and contrasts the availability of glucose in cells after consumption of a glucose solution, a commercial electrolyte drink (Gatorade), and a rice-based sports drink (Cerasport) at rest and during moderate exercise. Results indicate that Cerasport yielded high blood glucose values at rest and during exercise in adult subjects following an overnight fast, which suggest that cerasport may be more effective in energy absorption.


2. Mitigating Exertional Heat Illness in Military Personnel: The Science behind a Rice-Based Electrolyte and Rehydration Drink. Moore B, O'Hara R. J Spec Oper Med. Winter 2016;16(4):49-53.

Exertional heat illness (EHI) is prevalent among members of active duty personnel, especially those in specific military specialties. This study explains the various ORSs that are used to mitigate EHI in military personnel. The longer CHO (carbohydrate) chains in cerasport may allow more of the CHO to reach the ileum, which may result in slower and more sustained release of glucose, supporting energy as well as cognitive function. Cerasport may offer benefits such as faster gastric emptying rates and improved absorption from the GIT, which can provide rapidly available CHO substrates for energy needs, and increased water retention for maintenance of blood plasma volume (better hydration status).


3. Rice-Based Electrolyte Drinks More Effective Than Water in Replacing Sweat Losses During Hot Weather Training and Operations. Gerold KB, Greenough WB, III, Yasar S. J Spec Oper Med. 2013 Winter;13(4):12-4.

Heat-related injury presents significant threats to the health and operational effectiveness of Soldiers and military operations. A rice-based oral rehydration solution was superior to water alone at maintaining body weight, and enabled soldiers to better maintain their state of hydration during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperatures.


4. From Cholera to Burns: A Role for Oral Rehydration Therapy. Milner SM, Greenough WB, HI, Asuku ME, Feldman M, Makam R, Noppenberger D, Price LA, Prosciak M, van Loon IN. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011 Dec; 29(6): 648-651.

In patients with cholera, Ceralyte90, has been proven superior to the WHO-ORS in increasing fluid absorption of the intestine and reducing diarrhea. The rice-based ORS, with its variety of short, medium and long chain lengths, maximizes absorption of salts and water.

Rice-Based Solutions for Treating Disease:

1. Field M. New strategies for treating watery diarrhea. N.Engl.J.Med 1997; 297(20):1121-22.

Clarifies why digestible starches and proteins would be a better basis for ORS (low osmolarity and more available carrier-mediating glucose peptides and amino acids. Explains why long-chain carbohydrates enhance ORS, specifically in cases where watery diarrhea is a primary symptom.


2.  Gore SM, Fontaine O, Pierce NF. Impact of rice-based oral rehydration solution on stool output and duration of diarrhea: meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials. BMJ 1992;304(6822):287-91.

Review of clinical trials comparing rice-based ORS to glucose ORS conforms superiority of rice over glucose based products. Results show significantly improved response times among patients who use the rice-based ORS.


3. Molla A, Bari A, Greenough WB, III. Rice oral rehydration solution hastens recovery from dysentery. J.Diarrhoeal Dis.Res. 1995;13(1):8-11.

Rice ORS hastens recovery from invasive diarrheas helps heal inflammation of the digestive tract. Three-cell study to examine how rice-based ORS (R-ORS) aids in recovery from dysentery. The study compared R-ORS to glucose-based ORS. The patients who were administered the R-ORS recuperated more quickly than the others.


4. Molla AM, Ahmed SM, Greenough WB, III. Rice-based oral rehydration solution decreases the stool volume in acute diarrhoea. Bull.World Health Organ 1985;63(4):751-6.

Shows that rice ORS reduces volume loss and duration of diarrhea which is what all patients with diarrhea hope for. The symptoms were controlled even when patient conditions were severe. Patients in the study were afflicted by E. coli and Cholera.


5. Murphy C, Hahn S, Volmink J. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating cholera. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004 Oct 18:(4)

A comprehensive review of all studies favors rice-based ORS. The rice-based ORS was more effective at restoring blood nutrient levels and improving the patients’ wellbeing. Cholera symptoms were minimized and the lower osmolarity solution did not harm the patients.


6. Zaman K, Yunus M, Rahman A, Chowdhury HR, Sack DA. Efficacy of a packaged rice oral rehydration solution among children with cholera and cholera-like illness. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90(5):505-510.

Demonstrates benefits of rice ORS in severe diarrhea. This study found a 20 percent improvement in diarrhea reduction for children suffering from Cholera. Demonstrates benefits of rice ORS in severe diarrhea. Efficacy of a packaged rice oral rehydration solution among children with cholera and cholera-like illness.


7. Nalin DR, Hirschhorn N, Greenough W III, Fuchs GJ, Cash RA. “Clinical Concerns about reduced-osmolarity oral rehydration solution. JAMA 2004; 2;291(21): 2632-2635.

Lowering sodium chloride and glucose reduces efficacy of ORS and leads to hyponatremia in severe watery diarrheas such as cholera. The WHO found that the original ORS was not up to modern standards of controlling the symptoms of infectious diseases, especially in terms of reducing diarrhea. They recommended re-tooling the ORS recipe, with rice-based formulas being one of the leading choices.


8. Molla AM, Sarker SA, Hossain M, Molla A, Greenough WB, III. Rice-powder electrolyte solution as oral-therapy in diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. Lancet 1982;1(8285):1317-9.

Demonstrates the clinical advantages of rice ORS in both cholera and E. coli diarrhea. Reduces the severity of symptoms and balances the patient’s nutrient levels.

The Effectiveness of Rice-Based ORS Over Simple Glucose Carbohydrates:

  1. Carpenter CC, Greenough WB, Pierce NF. Oral rehydration therapy: the role of polymeric substrates. N.Engl.J.Med. 1988;319(20):1346-48.

“Oral Rehydration Therapy: The Role of Polymeric Substrates” explains the advantages of digestible starches and proteins based ORS products over simple sugar or amino acid ORS. The high risk of high osmolar products is noted. However, using starch and protein-based products has shown to be advantageous when used in rehydration therapy.


2. Jones BJ, Brown BE, Loran JS, Edgerton D, Kennedy JF, Stead JA et al. Glucose absorption from starch hydrolysates in the human jejunum. Gut 1983;24(12):1152-60.

An early observation of glucose release from starch demonstrates improved salt and water absorption. This research found that starch hydrolysates improved the intestinal absorption of nutrients, which indicates that starch-based ORS may be an improvement upon existing formulas. Salt and water were absorbed more quickly by the intestines.


3. Khin MU and Greenough WB, III. Cereal-based oral rehydration therapy. I. Clinical studies. J.Pediatr.1991;118(4 (Pt 2)):S72-S79.

Reviews clinical studies on cereal-based oral rehydration therapy further noting their advantages. Rice and cereal starches were used in these solutions and then compared to a glucose-based product.


4. Mehta MN, Subraminiam S. Comparison of rice water, rice electrolyte solution, and glucose electrolyte solution in the management of infantile diarrhea. Lancet 1986;1(8485):843-5.

Compares rice water, rice electrolyte solution to glucose-based electrolyte solutions shows the clinical advantages of rice ORS. This study compared the use of rice water, rice electrolyte solution, and glucose electrolyte solution in the management of infantile diarrhea. The rice water and rice-based solution expedited the patients’ recovery and helped them regain weight.


5. Thillainayagam AV, Carnaby S, Dias JA, Clark ML, Farthing MJ. Evidence of a dominant role for low osmolality in the efficacy of cereal based oral rehydration solutions: studies in a model of secretory diarrhoea. Gut 1993;34(7):920-5.

Shows the importance of low osmolarity in favoring cereal-based ORS. The low osmolarity of the rice-based formulas was shown to increase water absorption in their intestine. This is crucial for controlling disease-related symptoms and restoring nutrients.



Monash University receives a license fee for the use of the Monash University Low FODMAP Certified Trade Marks. Monash University Low FODMAP Certified trademarks used under license in the United States by Cera Products, Inc. These products can assist with following the Monash University Low FODMAP dietTM. A strict low FODMAP diet should not be commenced without supervision from a healthcare professional.