A randomized pilot study was carried out to compare the safety and effectiveness of rice powder salt solution (RPSS) in combination with milk-rice mixture (RPSS-MR group, n = 17) with other two regimens, glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) combined with MR (ORS-MR group, n = 17) and ORS combined with formula milk (ORS-milk group, n = 14) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea with mild to moderate dehydration in 48 boys younger than 2 years. Results showed that in the first 24 hours patients in the RPSS-MR group had significantly smaller amounts of stool weight (32.7 g/kg) than those in the ORS-MR group (67.5 g/kg) and ORS-milk group (59.2 g/kg) (p< 0.05 for both measurements). Patients in the RPSS-MR group also had significantly shorter duration of diarrhea (29.6 hours) than the other two groups (43.8 hours and 49.6 hours, respectively) (p < 0.05 for both measurements). The stool weight and duration of diarrhea between the ORS-MR group and the ORS-milk group were not significantly different. The positive effect of milk rice mixture was not demonstrated in the study due to the significantly more severe diarrhea in the ORS-MR group. The effectiveness of the RPSS-MR is therefore likely due to mainly RPSS.